The B2 research project inquires into the circumstances under which external actors contribute to effective and legitimate governance in areas of limited statehood. The project assumes that the empirical legitimacy of external actors, the degree of institutionalization of governance constellations, as well as the „boundedness“ of fragmentary state capacities significantly influence the effectiveness of external governance contributions. It further examines four sources of empirical legitimacy, namely the action orientation of external actors (public or private), the effectiveness of their governance as anticipated by local people, as well as degrees of localization, and of participation. Another research question of project B2 is about the extent to which external governance actors contribute to the establishment and reorganization of statehood. Based on previous results from within the SFB 700, the project sets up a causal model of the framework conditions for effective and legitimate governance by external actors.