Germany and South Korea rank high in the view of the installed capacity of nuclear power tin the world, respectively Nr.4 and Nr.6. Both countries pursue the commercial use of the nuclear energy without military purpose. They have the export oriented heavy industry and a similar structure of electricity generation and demand. But Germany and South Korea follow now the different paths in the nuclear policy. While Germany in 2000 politically decided the phase-out of nuclear power, in South Korea the path dependency on the nuclear energy is strengthened as reactors are being further established. In this research it is analysed, which socio-political factors lead to opposite development paths on the nuclear policy in Germany and South Korea. For this the actors, who take influence on the nuclear policy, as well as the nuclear industry and socio-political structure for given periods are analysed.