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Michael Krug


Research Fellow

Room 3.14

Michael is working as a researcher at the Environmental Policy Research Centre in the field of energy and climate policy analysis. He holds a diploma degree in Administration Sciences from the University of Konstanz. He has research and consulting experience of more than 20 years. Together with Dr. Rosaria Di Nucci, he is presently coordinating the Horizon 2020 project COME RES- Community Energy for the uptake of RES in the electricity sector. He is also engaged in the Norwegian-German cooperation project ENABLE - Enabling the Green Transition in Norway, in which he analyses questions related to the social acceptance of offshore wind energy in Germany. His current fields of research include governance of the Energiewende, community energy, social acceptance of renewable energy, policies and measures promoting the environmentally and socially sustainable use of renewable energy, and industrial relations in the field of renewable energy (including workplace democracy and Just Transition). Since 2005, Michael has been coordinating policy related work in several international projects co-financed by the EU including WinWind, (2017-2020) “Bioenergy Promotion 2 (2012-2014)” „Bioenergy Promotion” (2009-2011), “MunEM - Municipal energy management in Kaliningrad” (2007-2009), and “REGENERGY- Network of pioneering regions and communities working on innovative heat energy solutions” (2005-2007). From 2007 until 2009 Michael worked as Task Officer (Energy & Climate Change) for GIZ (Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit), formerly Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ).


Key research areas

(Comparative) energy and climate policy analysis, Governance of the Energiewende, support instruments for renewable energy, sustainability of renewable energy, community energy, social acceptance of renewable energy, Energiewende and industrial relations (e.g. decent work, workplace democracy, Just Transition)


Regional research focus

European Union, Baltic Sea Region, Baltic countries.


Current projects

  • COME RES - Community Energy for the uptake of RES in the electricity sector. Connecting long-term visions with short-term actions (Sep 01, 2020 — Feb 28, 2023). Here you can find the COME RES project website. 
  • ENABLE - Enabling the Green Transition in Norway (June 01, 2020 - July 01, 2023) 


Completed projects

  • “Institutionalisation of collective labor relations in the German wind energy sector?” (Feb 01, 2014 – Dec 31, 2016)
  • The Helmholtz Alliance ENERGY-TRANS Future infrastructures for meeting energy demands. Towards sustainability and social compatibility. Homepage of the ENERGY-TRANS project. More information here. (Project term: Sep 01, 2011 – Aug 31, 2016)
  • Bioenergy promotion 2 – from strategies to activities (Project term Jan 01, 2012 – Jan 31, 2014)
  • Bioenergy promotion (project term: Jan 01, 2009 – Dec 31, 2011)
  • REGENERGY (project term: April, 01 2005 – Dec 31, 2007)
  • Vorbereitung nicht-nuklearer Projekte für die deutsch-ukrainische Zusammenarbeit (project term: Nov 01, 2001 – Dec 31, 2002)
  • Instruments and Options for Environmental Policy during the Accession Process of EU Associated Countries in the Area of Environment and Energy“ (1999-2000).
  • Planung und Organisation von Capacity Building Seminaren für Energieexperten aus Mittel- und Osteuropa und den Nachfolgestaaten der Sowjetunion im Rahmen der IEA/CTI Climate Technology Initiative (1999-2005)


Selected Publications

  • Krug, M.; Di Nucci, M.R.; Caldera, M.; De Luca, E. (2022). Mainstreaming Community Energy: Is the Renewable Energy Directive a Driver for Renewable Energy Communities in Germany and Italy? Sustainability 2022, 14, 7181. https://doi.org/10.3390/su14127181
  • Krug, Michael; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria (2022): Renewable energy communities under the Green Deal: Enablers of a socially just transition? Baltic Rim Economies, 1/2022, 28.02.2022, https://sites.utu.fi/bre/renewable-energy-communities-under-the-green-deal-enablers-of-a-socially-just-transition/.
  • Schwarz, Lucas; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Krug, Michael (2022): Financing as a burden for the implementation of Renewable Energy Communities – Status Quo and need for action for energy policy. Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen, 72 (4), 30-35. An english abstract can be found here, the full article in German here.  
  • Di Nucci, M.R.; Krug, M.; Gatta, V.; Michalke, H. (2021): Zukunft der Bürgerwindkraft – Warum ist ein Regulierungsrahmen für Erneuerbare-Energie-Gemeinschaften notwendig? Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen. 71. Jg. (2021) Heft 6, S. 35- 40.

  • Themann, Dörte; Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Krug, Michael (2020): Gegenwind von Rechts? Windenergie im Spannungsfeld zwischen Klima-, Natur- und Heimatschutz. Jahrbuch Ökologie - Ökologie und Heimat. 2021.

  • De Luca; E., Nardi; C., Giuffrida, L.G; Krug, M. and M. R Di Nucci (2020): Explaining Factors Leading to Community Acceptance of Wind Energy. Results of an Expert Assessment. Energies 2020, 13(8), 2119; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13082119

  • Leiren, MD; Aakre, S; Linnerud, K; Julsrud, TE; Di Nucci, M-R; Krug, M. (2020): Community Acceptance of Wind Energy Developments: Experience from Wind Energy Scarce Regions in Europe. Sustainability. 2020; 12(5):1754.

  • Maleki-Dizaji, P.; del Bufalo, N.; Di Nucci, M.-R.; Krug, M. (2020): Overcoming Barriers to the Community Acceptance of Wind Energy: Lessons Learnt from a Comparative Analysis of Best Practice Cases across Europe. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3562.
  • Krug, M.; Di Nucci, M.R. (2020): Citizens at the heart of energy transition in Europe? Opportunities and Challenges for Community Wind Farms in six European Countries. Renewable Energy Law Policy Review 2020, 9, 9–27.
  • Di Nucci, M. R.; Krug, M. ; Will, A., Vondran, S. (2020): Akzeptanzfaktoren und akzeptanzfördernde Maßnahmenbeim Ausbau der Windenergie. Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen 4/202029-34.
  • Di Nucci, M. R.; Krug, M. (2018): “Conditions enhancing the socially Inclusive and environmentally sound Uptake of Wind Energy: The Case of Germany“. Journal of Environmental Policy and Administration Vol. 26, 1-41.
  • Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Krug, Michael (2018): Innovative und übertragbare Modelllösungen zur Förderung eines fairen Windenergieausbaus. Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen 68. Jg. (2018) Heft 7/8 S. 16-20.
  • Di Nucci, Maria Rosaria; Krug, Michael (2018): Akzeptanz von Windenergie in Regionen mit schwachem Windenergieausbau. Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen 68. Jg. (2018) Heft 4, 40-43.
  • Krug, Michael / Rabczuk, Grazyna / Cenian, Adam (2015): Addressing Sustainability Risks of Bioenergy – Policy Strategies and Corporate Initiatives. Energy and Power Engineering, 7, 217-241. Doi: 10.4236/epe.2015.75022.
  • Krug, Michael (2014): Umwelt- und sozialverträglicher Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien, in: Achim Brunnengräber, Maria Rosaria Di Nucci (Hrsg.): Im Hürdenlauf zur Energiewende. Von Transformationen, Reformen und Innovationen. Zum 70. Geburtstag von Lutz Mez. Wiesbaden. S. 225-246.
  • Krug, Michael (2013): The role of renewable energy in achieving a balanced energy mix, in: European Parliament Directorate General for External Policies (Ed.) Workshop Eastern Partnership Prospects on Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Brussels 2013. Pp. 83-103. 
  • Krug, Michael (2012): Policies and measures to promote sustainable bioenergy production in the Baltic Sea Region, in: Pēteris Rivža (Ed.): Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference. Jelgava. Pp. 81-85.

Please find a detailed publication list here.