News from Jun 24, 2013
Up to now European Integration has mainly been described as a process that is driven by elites rather than citizens. However, in the field of EU social policy this is not the case. On the contrary,it is often influenced by individual actors and their particular interests. This specific involvement of individuals is based on politically created roles, such as European Consumer, European Worker and European Citizen, and the rights related to them. EU citizens now adopt these roles and actively refer to entitlements that emerge for them from EU law, especially when asserting their rights in court. As an unintended effect we can indeed observe a transfer of competences from the national to the European level in the field of social policy - even against the expressed will of national governments. The evolution of European social policies can therefore only be explained by including the individual citizen in the analysis.