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Non-Muslim Feminism in the Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Until now, the figure of the religious minority woman has largely been a silent one in Pakistan’s national conversation on non-Muslim rights—the passive object of kidnapping, conversion, violence, and victimization. This project seeks to bring depth of dimension to the “eternal victim” narrative by gathering the accounts of women belonging to Pakistan’s Christian, Hindu, and Sikh communities. Its goal is not only to understand how minority women are represented and their issues taken up by broader social movements, but how minority women represent and advocate for themselves and their communities to wider publics in Pakistan and beyond.


Max Kramer is a postdoctoral fellow at the Volkswagen Freigeist project "The Populism of the Precarious: Marginalization, Mobilization, and Mediatization of South Asia's Religious Minorities". Within this project, he investigates the mobilizing activities of party members, activists and digital volunteers that address, represent, and produce ‘Indian Muslims’ through mediation. Particular focus is on the imaginary and affective moments within mobilization practices and the wider visual culture as they pertain to the boundaries of minoritarian belonging in the current dispensation.

Becoming Visible: Marginalization, Mediatization, Mobilization of Pakistan’s Religious Minorities

Based on extensive fieldwork in Pakistan, vernacular discourses in Hindi, Sindhi, and Urdu, as well as manual and computationally supported online research, it is analyzed how “non-Muslims” negotiate religious belonging and citizenship in Pakistan.